Syrian Constitutions – Timeline

Overview

Number of Articles

The State

Notes

  The Syrian Kingdom 

3, Jun, 1919 – 19, Jul, 1920

Syrian Conference of 85 delegates from current Syria, Lebanon, Jordan,
and Palestine, the four region of Syria, headed by Mr. Hashem Atassi declared
the first Syrian constitution. On the 7th of March 1920, the crowning of King
Faisal I, (King Faisal Ibn al-Hussein), as the King of the Syrian Kingdom was
announced in Damascus by Mr. Izzat Darawzeh of Nablus.

147 articles

Syrian Kingdom

The French Occupation – The French Mandate

1928

The 1928’s Constitution draft was declared on the 7th of August 1928
by the Constitutive Council headed by Mr. Hashem Atassi.

115 articles

State of Syria

Articles rejected by Mr. Ponsot

2. Syrian regions that gained independence from the
Ottoman Empire conforms one undivided political unit.

73. The president can issue
amnesty.

74. The president ratifies
international treaties. Treaties involving the safety of the nation and the
state’s treasury, and/or commercial treaties must be approved by the Council.

75. The president appoints the
prime minister and approves the appointed ministers.

Article 110 involved having
a Syrian army at a later stage.*

Article 112 involved declaring the state of emergency.*

*Articles 110 and 112 were phrased carefully trying to avoid any
conflict with the French mandate.

Mr. H. Ponsot ordered the Constitutive Council to eliminate articles
2, 73, 74, 75, 110, and 112 of the constitution draft.

1930

14th of May 1930, Mr. Ponsot announced the Syrian
constitution from Beirut.

116 articles

State of Syria

Article 116. ensured the
French control of Syria, in eliminating or ? the constitution.
  Independence

1946

Syrian Independence remarked the elimination of article 116 from the
constitution of 1930.

115 articles

Syrian Republic

1950

The 1950 constitution was declared on the 5th of Sep, 1950.

166 articles

Syrian Republic

Article 24 stated the right
of nationalizing private sector’s companies and industries.Article 28 was about
education and stated that teaching religion is compulsory.Article 30. The army is the
guard of the land, its sole mission is to protect the borders of the homeland
and ensure its safety.

Article 71. The president is
elected by the parliament in a secret vote.

1953

Adib al-Shaishakly took power on the 3rd of Dec, 1951. July
1953 he declared the 1953 constitution.

129 articles

Syrian Republic

Article 3 stated that the
Syrian Republic should pursue the goal of a “United Arab Nation”.Article 81 was about the
presidential election and stated in one of its clauses: The president is
elected by the people directly.

25, Apr, 1954

Reinstallation of the constitution of 1950.

166 articles

Syrian Republic

22, Feb, 1958 – 28, Sep, 1961

A unity between Syria and Egypt was declared; later Nasser announced a
transitional constitution of 73 articles.

73 articles

United Arab Republic

28, Sep, 1961

A temporary constitution stated that a parliament should be elected to
draft a new constitution within 6 months. It also stated that until the new
constitution is in effect, the 1950 constitution’s articles about executive administration
will be in effect.

Syrian Arab Republic

1962

166 articles

Syrian Arab Republic

Article 71. The president is
elected by the parliament in a secret vote.

The Baathists Revolution of 1963 – 8, March, 1963

1964

Temporary Constitution

82

Syrian Arab Republic

Article 1. (1) The Syrian Region is a democratic, popular, socialist, and
sovereign state. Syria is a part of the Arab homeland.(2) The people in the Syrian Arab region are a part of the Arab
nation.  They work and struggle to achieve the Arab nation’s comprehensive
unity.

Article 6. The Syrian Flag
as shown.

Article 11. The armed
forces and other defense organizations are responsible for the defense
of the homeland’s territory and for the protection of the revolution’s
objectives of unity, freedom, and socialism.

Article 22. Citizens
exercise their rights and enjoy their freedoms in accordance with the law
under the condition of not endangering the national security, the Arab unity,
the republic’s institutions, and/or the goals of the popular socialist
revolution.

Article 47. Executive
administration is exercised and handled by the Presidential Council and the
cabinet.

Article 48.

(1) Presidential Council consists of a president, a vice president,
and 3 Council members elected by the National Council.*

(2) Presidential Council is held responsible for all
their activities before the National Council.

* The National Council of the Revolution, Mohammad Amin al-Hafez,
president.

1969

After 23rd of February Movement in 1966, Mr. Nour al-Din
Atassi was appointed a president. The National administration of Baath party
announced the temporary constitution of 1969.

80 articles

Syrian Arab Republic

Article 1(1) The Syrian Arab Republic is a democratic, popular, socialist, and
sovereign state. Syria is a part of the Arab homeland.(2) The people in the Syrian Arab region are a part of the Arab nation.

Article 7. The leading
party in the society and the state is the Socialist Arab Baath Party.

Article17. The educational
system aims at upbringing an Arab nationalist socialist generation…. etc…

The Assads  

16, November, 1970, Mr. Hafez al-Assad declared a “Correctional
Movement” against the “corrupt” leadership within the Baath party and the
military.

1971

The National Leadership of the Baath party amended the preamble and
article 80 of 1969 constitution, and added 2 articles before announcing the
temporary constitution of 1971.

82 articles

Syrian Arab Republic

1971

Benghazi’s declaration of establishing the Union of Arab Republics in
1971 was signed and announced by Sadat, Assad, and Gaddafi. They later drafted
the Union’s temporary constitution of 1971.

72 articles

Syrian Arab Republic

1973

The Syrian Constitution of 1973 was announced by Mr. Hafez al-Assad on
the 13th of March, 1973.

156

Syrian Arab Republic

1982 – Mr. Hafez al-Assad amended
article 6 of the constitution to eliminate a star out of the Syrian Flag.11 June 2000, Baathists and
the parliament amended article 83 of the constitution to be: A candidate for
the presidency must be an Arab Syrian, enjoying his civil and political
rights, and be over 34 years of age.

Download the PDF file Syrian Constitutions Timeline

Discussion

10 thoughts on “Syrian Constitutions – Timeline

  1. Good work, Sami. This must have taken some time. I haven’t seen the events set out so clearly in a timeline before.

    Posted by wsscherk | 14/04/2012, 17:11
    • Thanks.
      I have researched the Syrian Constitutions long time before the revolution…
      Best
      Sami

      Posted by Sami | 14/04/2012, 18:19
      • Dear Sami,

        My name is Daniel Rivera, I am from Spain and I am doing some research for my PhD about the Syrian constitution. I was wondering if you could tell when did you write this timetable so I can quote it properly in my reseach. It is a great table and very useful for my reseach. Awesome!

        With my best regards,

        Daniel

        Posted by Daniel F. Rivera Gómez | 02/05/2012, 13:37
      • Hi Daniel…
        I did this around December 2010…
        Best, Sami

        Posted by Sami | 04/05/2012, 04:50
  2. It’s wonderfull work. thank’s. Could you say, where I could find the texts of these all constitutions (in electronical form, maybe in Internet)?
    I will be very obliged you.
    Yours sincerely
    Zed (from Warsaw, Poland)

    Posted by Zed | 28/06/2012, 15:44
  3. Dear Sami
    Thank your for this great timeline with crucial comments on the development og constitutions in Syria. I’m working on my masters thesis and doing an analysis of The Day After Project – for transitional justice in Syria. They suggest that Syria go back to the 1950 Constitution and that the 2012 Constitution gets annulled. What is your opinion about this and do you see it as a Global-Liberal UN project, which is taking over the process of transitional justice in Syria? Do you share the view that the 1950 constitution was a CIA project?

    All the best,

    Mette Lundsfryd

    Posted by Mette Lundsfryd | 12/05/2013, 19:03
  4. Hi Mette, do you have an email to reply to?

    Posted by Sami | 13/05/2013, 16:58

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