Syrian History – Timeline
Period Main Center Syrian Principalities From To
 
Mesolithic

Kebarian Syria Syrian Levant and Ephrates as separate and small settlments c. 18000 BC c. 12000 BC
Natufian Syria / Mid Euphrates Mureibet – Abu Huraira – Jebel Aruda – Yabrud c. 12000 BC c. 8000 BC
Neolithic

Hassuna Iraq Syrian Jazeera – Sinjar Mountains c. 8500 BC c. 5000 BC
Tell Halaf  Syria / North East on Turkeish border Tell Halaf – … c. 6000 BC c. 4000 BC
Umuq Syria / north of Euphrates Umuq plains – Jubeil Lebanon c. 6000 BC c. 4000 BC
Samurra’ Iraq Syrian Jazeera (north of Euphrates) c. 5500 BC c. 5000 BC
Ubaid Iraq Northern regions in Syria – Syrian Levant c. 5300 BC c. 4000 BC
Ancient History (Bronze & Iron Ages)

Sumerian (Uruk & Ur) Iraq Habbuba – Tell Qannas – Jebel Aruda – Mari – Baghuz (Abu Kemal) c. 4100 BC c. 2000 BC
Canaanite (Phoenician) Syria – Lebanon – Palestine Syrian Levant – Ugarit – Ebla – Alalakh – Amuru – Damascus – Qadesh c. 3500 BC c. 1000 BC
Elamite Iran Northern regions in Syria c. 2700 BC 539 BC
Akkadian Iraq Tell Brak – Mari – Ebla – Yamhad (Aleppo) c. 2450 BC 2159 BC
Hurrians Turkey / Anatolia – Syria / Khabur Valley Yamhad – Tell Brak – Tell Halaf – Alalakh – Ugarit – Mari c. 2400 BC c. 1250 BC
Babylonian Iraq Mari – Ebla – Yamhad – Ugarit 2159 BC 1595 BC
Amorite Syria Levant cities – North of Euphrates c. 2150 BC c. 1600 BC
Assyrian Iraq Khabur River Valley – Mari – Shubat Enlil – North of Syria 1920 BC 612 BC
Hittite Turkey / Anatolia Levant cities – northern cities c. 1750 BC 1160 BC
Mittanite Syria Khabur River Valley – Yamhad c. 1500 BC c. 1350 BC
Aramean Syria Mari – Ugarit – Damascus – Maalula c. 1450 BC Present day
Roman Italy / Rome Levant cities – Bosra – Palmyra – Damascus – Apamea 753 BC 476 AD
Chaldean Syria Southern Mesopotamia (north east of Euphrates) 612 BC 539 BC
Persian Iran Mari – Ebla – Yamhad – Aleppo – Damascus 550 BC 651 AD
Hellenisntic Greece Levant cities – Amrit – Arwad – Aleppo – Damascus 333 BC c. 30 BC
Middle Ages

Byzantine Turkey / Antioch Levant cities – Aleppo – Homs – Syrian Jazeera 330 AD 1453 AD
Islam Saudi Arabia / Mecca – Medina   632 AD
Ummayyad Syria / Damascus   661 AD 750 AD
Abbasid Iraq / Baghdad   750 AD 1258 AD
Islamic Era / The Arab States

Hamdanid Iraq – Syria Aleppo and northern area 890 AD 1004 AD
Fatimid Tunis / Mahdia (909 – 969) – Egypt / Cairo Damascus – Aleppo – Hama – Homs 909 AD 1171 AD
Ikhshidid Egypt / Cairo Damascus – Aleppo – Hama – Homs 935 AD 969 AD
Seljuq / Saljuk Turkey Aleppo and northern area 1055 AD 1128 AD
Crusaders Christian Europe / in the name of Catholic Church Syrian cities and castles [Castle Blanc/Safit – Krak Des Chevalliers
– Marqab Caslte]
1095 AD 1187 AD
Ayyubid Kurdistan by orgin – Egypt Damascus – Aleppo – Hama – Homs 1171 AD 1263 AD
Mameluke Egypt (Slaves from Turkey) Damascus – Aleppo – Hama – Homs 1250 AD 1517 AD
Ottoman Turkey / Edrin – Istanbul  Different Syrian cities 1299 / in Syria 1516 AD 1920  / 1922 Ottoman’s collapse AD
French Mandate     1920 AD 1946 AD
Syrian Arab Republic     1946 AD present day

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